The church of St. Lawrence was built in the vicinity of the Ducal and Royal Acropolis in the final third of the 11th century. It was a small but well decorated three-nave Romanesque basilica that probably lacked towers. The edifice disappeared no later than during the Hussite turmoil in 1420. The northern part of the basilica is preserved in the building of the Old Deanery where it was converted into a Chapel of St. Lawrence. Archaeological research revealed the foundation of the basilica currently located behind the fence wall and accessible through a small gate with a Neo-Romanesque portal by A. Baum built in 1880. The displayed artifacts include copies of Romanesque relief tiles found during the excavations. The tiles are decorated with motif of mythical creatures: the griffin, the lion and the sphinx. There is also a depiction of Roman Emperor Nero which is unique in the Pan-European context.

The Basilica of St. Lawrence belongs to the Royal Collegiate Chapter of Ss. Peter and Paul at Vyšehrad and is possible to visit with their permission or as a part of the guided tour Royal Castle (only in czech) according to the current schedule.